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A statement made by, or (sometimes dubiously) attributed to, a party is generally exempt from the rule against hearsay, and also the rules restricting lay opinions and requiring personal knowledge, when introduced against that party. (Under the FRE, it is also partially exempt from the original-document requirement.) Traditionally such statements are known as evidentiary admissions. They must be distinguished from judicial admissions, formal acknowledgments made as part of litigation that for purposes of that case a proposition shall be deemed true. At the core of the doctrine of evidentiary admissions are personal admissions, statements made by the party opponent. A party might also engage in conduct that, without repeating a statement’s content, communicates his belief that the statement is true; this is an adoptive admission. If the party opponent’s conduct, without attempting to communicate the truth of the statement, reflects belief in its truth, that is a tacit, or imputed, admission. Admissions may also be made by the party opponent’s agent; traditionally, this doctrine extended only to statements authorized by the party, but under the FRE a statement made by the agent on a matter within the scope of the relationship, and while it existed, also qualifies. Finally, statements by a conspirator of the party opponent may qualify, if they were made during the course of and in furtherance of the conspiracy. The in-furtherance requirement, which is not a part of the general doctrine for civil agents’ admissions, effectively ensures that the exemption does not allow admission of testimonial statements.

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