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Litigating disputes in international civil and commercial cases presents a number of special challenges. Which country's courts have jurisdiction, and where is it advantageous to sue? Given the international elements of the case, which country's law will the court apply? Finally, if a successful plaintiff cannot find enough local assets, what does it take to have the judgement recognized and enforced in a country with assets? This extensively updated second edition Advanced Introduction addresses these questions, providing a concise overview of the field.

  • Author biography x

  • Preface xi

  1. 1Introduction: Basic issues 1
    1. 1.1“Private International Law” 1
    2. 1.2The elements of an “international civil case” 1
      1. 1.2.1Sources 2
      2. 1.2.2Issues of an international case: Where to litigate? What law applies? 3
      3. 1.2.3Scope of coverage 4
      4. 1.2.4A note on terminology: the different meanings of “jurisdiction” 5
    3. 1.3Applicable law and the goals of conflicts law 6
      1. 1.3.1In general 6
      2. 1.3.2Historical notes 6
      3. 1.3.3The older European model – rule orientation to achieve “conflicts justice” 9
      4. 1.3.4The American conflicts “revolution” 11
      5. 1.3.5Modern approaches and trends 12
    4. 1.4Connecting factors 14
  1. PART IJurisdiction to Adjudicate
    1. 2Forum-selection clauses 17
      1. 2.1Prorogation and derogation 17
      2. 2.2Some limits 18
        1. 2.2.1EU law 18
        2. p. vi2.2.2The Hague Convention 19
        3. 2.2.3United States 19
        4. 2.2.4Rejecting a choice 19
        5. 2.2.5Breach of a forum-selection clause 20
        6. 2.2.6The law applicable to a forum-selection clause 21
      3. 2.3One-sided clauses 22
        1. 2.3.1Adhesion provisions 22
        2. 2.3.2Clauses excluding recourse to court 22
    2. 3Jurisdiction over persons and things 24
      1. 3.1In rem jurisdiction 24
      2. 3.2General personal jurisdiction 25
        1. 3.2.1Exorbitant rules 25
        2. 3.2.2Jurisdiction over companies 26
      3. 3.3Specific (or special) jurisdiction 27
        1. 3.3.1What contacts confer specific jurisdiction? 28
        2. 3.3.2“Stream of commerce” jurisdiction 29
        3. 3.3.3“Relatedness” versus “arising out of” in American law 30
        4. 3.3.4Weaker party protection in contract in the EU 31
        5. 3.3.5Weaker party protection in American law 31
      4. 3.4Class actions 33
      5. 3.5Piercing the corporate veil for jurisdiction 34
      6. 3.6Jurisdiction in domestic relations cases 36
        1. 3.6.1Introduction 36
        2. 3.6.2Marriage 36
        3. 3.6.3Divorce38
        4. 3.6.4Child custody 40
        5. 3.6.5Maintenance, child support, and the like 42
        6. 3.6.6Adoption 44
      7. 3.7Dismissal for lis pendens or forum non conveniens 45
        1. 3.7.1Lis alibi pendens 45
        2. 3.7.2Forum non conveniens 46
      8. 3.8Jurisdiction over things – actions in rem 48
      9. 3.9Notice and service 49
      10. 3.10Taking evidence abroad 51
  2. p. viiPART IIThe Applicable Law (Choice of Law)
    1. 4What law applies? 56
      1. 4.1Sources 56
        1. 4.1.1Conventions 56
        2. 4.1.2Federal-like (supranational) law: the example of the EU57
        3. 4.1.3National (domestic) law: in general59
      2. 4.2Party autonomy 60
        1. 4.2.1Scope, limits, validity 60
        2. 4.2.2Unusual cases: partial choice of law, “floating clauses” 63
      3. 4.3How to determine the applicable law in the absence of a party choice: by rule or case-specific approach? The examples of contract and tort conflicts law 64
        1. 4.3.1Civil law 64
        2. 4.3.2Rule orientation in the common law 71
        3. 4.3.3The American “Conflicts Revolution” and case-specific approaches 73
        4. 4.3.4Applicable law for the whole or only part of the case? 79
        5. 4.3.5Connecting factors, especially “domicile” and “habitual residence” 82
      4. 4.4Renvoi 86
      5. 4.5Special aspects in American law regarding time limits, damages 88
        1. 4.5.1Time limitations 88
        2. 4.5.2Damages 89
      6. 4.6Choice of law in areas other than contract or tort 90
        1. 4.6.1Family law 90
        2. 4.6.2Succession 97
        3. 4.6.3Corporate entities 103
      7. p. viii4.7Forum policy: mandatory norms and the public policy exception 105
      8. 4.8How to determine the content of applicable foreign law? 106
        1. 4.8.1How does foreign law become applicable? 106
        2. 4.8.2Determining the content of and applying foreign law 106
  3. PART IIIJudgments
    1. 5Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments 110
      1. 5.1Introduction 110
      2. 5.2The nature of the foreign decree 111
        1. 5.2.1Finality 111
        2. 5.2.2The issuing authority 112
        3. 5.2.3Effect in another state 113
      3. 5.3Methods of recognition – international solutions 114
        1. 5.3.1Treaties 114
        2. 5.3.2Reciprocal recognition arrangements 115
        3. 5.3.3The EU's “federal-type” approach 116
        4. 5.3.4The Lugano Convention 117
      4. 5.4Methods of recognition – national law approaches 118
        1. 5.4.1The civil law exequatur 118
        2. 5.4.2Recognition under common law 119
      5. 5.5Defenses to recognition and enforcement 121
        1. 5.5.1In general 121
        2. 5.5.2Lack of jurisdiction 122
        3. 5.5.3Notice 125
        4. 5.5.4Conflicting judgments 126
        5. 5.5.5Public policy 128
        6. 5.5.6No remedy available locally 132
      6. 5.6The effect of a recognized judgment 133
        1. 5.6.1The res judicata effect on the parties 133
        2. 5.6.2Effect on third parties 135
      7. 5.7Enforcement mechanisms 136
        1. p. ix5.7.1Foreign-country judgments in the United States 136
        2. 5.7.2Recognition elsewhere 137
  4. 6An assessment: tasks, developments, trends 138
    1. 6.1In general 138
    2. 6.2Jurisdiction and recognition of judgments in civil and commercial matters 139
      1. 6.2.1Worldwide harmonization 139
      2. 6.2.2Arbitration 141
      3. 6.2.3Regional harmonization 142
      4. 6.2.4National law 143
    3. 6.3Choice of law 144
  • Appendix: Sources of EU law 147

    • Procedural law 147

    • Applicable law 148

    • Maintenance obligations 148

    • Succession 148

  • Bibliography 149

  • Index 153