whose mandates are not limited to human rights issues. The treaties that create these institutions may in fact place primary emphasis on other matters, such as economic integration or maintaining international peace and security, creating a constant tension in the efforts to balance or reconcile various mandates and priorities. The status accorded human rights among the purposes and functions of each organization is an important factor in the potential effectiveness of the organization’s human rights programme. Even in organizations that purport to place high priority on human rights, the entities and their mandates are created and maintained by States that are not always eager to have strong institutions scrutinizing their compliance with human rights norms.
The main global entity concerned with human rights is the UN system, including its main and subsidiary organs and the specialized agencies affiliated with it. Other global organizations, including international financial bodies and the World Trade Organization (WTO), touch on human rights matters in their work but the topic is not mentioned in their founding documents. Numerous regional human rights institutions and systems have also emerged, particularly since the end of the Cold War. This chapter introduces the global and regional human rights institutions and organs, their commonalities, differences and present challenges.
Taken as a whole, the UN system has played a central role in creating and monitoring modern human rights law. The provisions in the UN Charter contributed to enshrining human rights on the global agenda. Articles 55 and 56...
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